Common Renal Terms & Diagnosis Explained

Common Renal Terms Explained

COMMON RENAL TERMS AND DIAGNOSES EXPLAINED BELOW:

-Acute Renal Failure: Generally reversible. Can often be treated with IV fluids. Dehydration, kidney stones or other blockages, sepsis, decreased blood flow to the kidneys, blood loss, and some cause of ARF.

-Anuric: Urine output <100 cc a day. Often seen in chronic kidney disease patients on diaylsis

-Chronic kidney disease: There are 5 stages. The 5th Stage being End Stage and usually necessitating dialsysis in order for the body to filter extra fluid & toxins. The kidneys are no longer able to do this on their own. The GFR is <15 at this stage. Daily weights, fluids restrictions, strict diet restrictions, medication and scheduled dialysis compliance is extremely important at the 5th stage.

-Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the filters of the kidneys which can seriously damage the kidneys. Some potential causes are: strep throat, lupus.

-Hydronephrosis: kidney swelling due to blockage of ureters causing a back-flow of urine into the kidneys

-Nephrotic syndrome: Also known as leaky kidneys. With nephrotic syndrome, the filters of the kidneys (the glomeruli) are damaged. Because of this damage, protein begins to leak into the urine. Protein is not normally supposed to leak out in the urine. Protein retention is important because it keep fluids where they are supposed to be in the body- your bloodstream. So when it leaks, you have less in system and therefore the fluids start to leak into the tissues and thus causing swelling of tissues. Fluid retention develop and swelling of body is often seen (eyes, feet, hands, legs).

-Nephrolithiasis: Renal stone in the actual kidney

-Oliguric: Urine output <500 cc urine a day

-Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys

-Ureterolithiasis: Kidney stone in ureters. The passage way that connects your kidneys to the bladder. Each kidney has one

REFERENCES:

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000490.htm

https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/nephrotic

http://www.healthline.com/health/glomerulonephritis#Overview

Image from Pixabay-Royalty free pictures

 

Shorthand Nursing

There are several others and this list may be periodically update:

AC- before meals
ACHS- Before meals & at bedtime
AKA- Above the knee amputation
AMA- Against medical advice
Anbx- Antibiotic
Asa- Aspirin
BID- Two times a day
BKA- Below the knee amputation
BM- Bowel movement
Bx- Biopsy
C&S- Culture & Sensitivity
Ca- Cancer
CC- Chief complaint
C-diff- Clostridium Difficile
CVA- Stroke
Cx- Culture
CXR- Chest Xray
DNR- Do not resuscitate
Dx- Diagnosis
Fx- Fracture
GI: Gastrointestinal
Hgb-Hemoglobbin
HPI- History of present illness
IM- Intramuscular
IV- Intravenous
IVPB- IV piggyback
K- Potassium
MI- Myocardial infarction
Na- Sodium
NPO- Nothing by mouth
O.D.- Right eye
O.S.- Left eye
Oz- Ounce
PO- By mouth
PRN- As needed
q- Every
QD- Daily
QID- Four times a day
ROS- Review of Systems
Rx- Prescription
SQ- Subcutaneous
Sx- Symptoms
TID- Three times a day
Tx- Treatment
w/o- Without

 

Word of the Day: ATAXIA

ATAXIA

DEFINITON:

When an individual is unable to control, coordinate their body movements. It is often used when describing how one is ambulating. But ataxia can also be used to describe several other areas/functions of the body (swallowing, speech, eye movement). This is often a sign of damage to the cerebellum (the part of the brain that controls movement).

VIDEO EXAMPLE:

Ataxic Gait- by Onlinemedicalvideo Youtube channel

DX THIS MAY BEEN SEEN:

Alcoholism

Cerebral Palsy

CVA

Multiple Sclerosis

REFERENCES:

1.) Ataxia-Mayo Clinic

2.) Online Medical Video Youtube (video example)

WORD OF THE DAY: ORTHOPNEA

WORD OF THE DAY

ORTHOPNEA:

Shortness of breath specifically when a patient lays down. These individuals will often sleep in recliners.

DIAGNOSIS MAY SEE THIS:

-Congestive heart failure

-Pulmonary Edema

-Pericarditis

-Aortic aneurysm/Dissection

-Aortic regurgitation

 

(There are other potential causes for orthopnea-these are just a few)

Terminology That Every New Nurse Should Know

1. Aphasia- Can’t talk
2. Asytole: No heart electrical activity, flat lined
3. Anuric: generally 4. Ataxia: Inability to control body movement, coordination, balance
5. Bilateral- Both sides
6. Bradycardia: Slow heart rate
7. Calculi: Kidney stone
8. Diminished lung sounds: Often in smokers. Lung sounds are often harder to hear due to diminished air flow. There are also other causes for this that are acute in nature.
9. DKA: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition that can lead to death. These patients often have polyuria, confusion, fruity breath, disorientation, hyperkalemia, and elevated anion gap (among other abnormal labs: See other common abnormal labs with DKA . Diabetics who go into metabolic acidosis many times from uncontrolled glucose. The usually will be placed on an insulin drip and aggressive hydration
10. DNR: Do Not Resuscitate. Usually outlined in an advanced directive. This does not mean do not care for this patient. They should not die from neglect. It is generally if they are dying from natural causes that no CPR and no other life extending procedures be performed
11. DVT: Deep vein thrombosis, generally in legs. Could potentially travel to lungs
12. Dysphagia: Difficulties eating
13. Dysphasia: Difficulties with speech
14. Edema: Swelling
15. Erythema: Red
16. Expiration time: Time of death
17. Fistula: Vascular access for dialysis for end stage renal disease patients
18. Hyperglycemia: High glucose
19. Hyperkalemia: High potassium
20. Hypernatremia: High sodium
21. Hypomagnesemia: Low magnesium
22. Hyponatremia: Low sodium
23. Hypocalcemia: Low calcium
24. Hypoglycemia: High glucose
25. Hypokalemia: Low potassium
26. Macule: Flat lesion, no raised edges.
27. Oliguric: Generally urine output < 500 cc a day
28. Organomegaly: Enlarged organ to palpation
29. Pruritis: Itching
30. Rhonchi: Snoring quality to lung sounds. May hear in pneumonia, bronchitis
31. Sun Downers: Often happens with Alzheimer’s patient. As the name implies, The may begin to become agitated, disoriented, forgetful, combative when sunsets (early evening)
32. Symmetrical: Both sides are equal, the same
33. Tachycardia: Fast heart rate >100 beat per minute
34. Tachypnea: Fast respirations > 20
35. Orthopnea: Shortness of air upon laying down
36. Polyuria: Urinating >2500 ml a day (peeing a lot, often linked to diabetes)
37. Polydipsia: Excessive drinking fluids, excessive thirst (often linked to diabetes)
38. Polyphagia: Excessive eating (often linked to diabetes)
39. Nocturia: Excessive need to urination during nightitme
40. Melena: Black tarry stools, may represent a GI bleed

There many more medical terms but these are some to get you started. We will continue to post more for your reference and studying!

Common Renal Terms Explained

COMMON RENAL TERMS AND DIAGNOSES EXPLAINED BELOW:

-Acute Renal Failure: Generally reversible. Can often be treated with IV fluids. Dehydration, kidney stones or other blockages, sepsis, decreased blood flow to the kidneys, blood loss, and some cause of ARF.

-Anuric: Urine output <100 cc a day. Often seen in chronic kidney disease patients on diaylsis

-Chronic kidney disease: There are 5 stages. The 5th Stage being End Stage and usually necessitating dialsysis in order for the body to filter extra fluid & toxins. The kidneys are no longer able to do this on their own. The GFR is <15 at this stage. Daily weights, fluids restrictions, strict diet restrictions, medication and scheduled dialysis compliance is extremely important at the 5th stage.

-Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the filters of the kidneys which can seriously damage the kidneys. Some potential causes are: strep throat, lupus.

-Hydronephrosis: kidney swelling due to blockage of ureters causing a back-flow of urine into the kidneys

-Nephrotic syndrome: Also known as leaky kidneys. With nephrotic syndrome, the filters of the kidneys (the glomeruli) are damaged. Because of this damage, protein begins to leak into the urine. Protein is not normally supposed to leak out in the urine. Protein retention is important because it keep fluids where they are supposed to be in the body- your bloodstream. So when it leaks, you have less in system and therefore the fluids start to leak into the tissues and thus causing swelling of tissues. Fluid retention develop and swelling of body is often seen (eyes, feet, hands, legs).

-Nephrolithiasis: Renal stone in the actual kidney

-Oliguric: Urine output <500 cc urine a day

-Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys

-Ureterolithiasis: Kidney stone in ureters. The passage way that connects your kidneys to the bladder. Each kidney has one

REFERENCES:

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000490.htm

https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/nephrotic

http://www.healthline.com/health/glomerulonephritis#Overview