• Poor sun exposure
  • Malabsorption: crohn’s, celiac, cystic fibrosis, resection small intestines, short bowel syndrome
  • Medications: Antiretroviral tx, rifampin, St John’s Wort, anti seizure (dilantin) medications, glucocorticoids (1)
  • Benign or malignant tumor
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Inadequate dietary intake
  • Oncogenic Osteomalacia
  • Vegan diet
  • Having darker skin color



  1. Epocrates Vitamin D Deficiency
  2. Vitamin D Deficiency WebMD
  3. EMedicine

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